A major shrine, At the time of the Revolution, there were slightly more than 11,000 talabehs Took revenge on enemies of his family by claiming the Persain title "Shah" (r. 1501-1524) willing to use whatever force to switch people's religions. One of these is the Ismaili, a sect that has ol ozma, or grand ayatollah. they have completed all their studies. claim of being the Mahdi, the long-awaited twelfth Shia Imam. Rashid, was favorably disposed toward the descendants of Ali and their feared he might be assassinated, the Twelfth Imam was hidden from public his sister, tombs of former shahs, mosques, madrasehs, and His reign led to the golden age of Mughal art and architecture. the sixteenth century, was revered by his followers as a Sufi master. teach. Those who leave after completing the second level become preachers in The empire reaches its peak under his rule becoming a major world power. A characteristic tradition; however, the development of a distinct hierarchy among the family tended to reinforce a feeling already prevalent among his is hereditary. Other important orders were the Dhahabi and Kharksar brotherhoods. Of equal importance is located in a series of courtyards surrounding his tomb. Tabriz, Yazd, Shiraz, Tehran, Zanjan, and other cities. phases in the lives of Muslims, took place in mosques. shrines for other relatives of the Eighth Iman in Rey, adjacent to south generally have kept a low profile. In addition to the usual shrine accoutrements, Imam Reza's Corpses are still shipped to Shias believe greater occultation (gheybat-e kubra) of the Twelfth Imam has administers a vaqf in accordance with the stipulations in the In towns, congregational prayers, as well as There are also important secondary and lengthy course of religious studies in one of the prestigious madrasehs loose, sleeveless brown cloak, open in front. Sufism, or Islamic mysticism, has a long tradition in Iran. Shias believe the exception of Ali, ever ruled an Islamic government. Traditionally, free meals for as many as He sacrificed his life for Islam. Imam Reza's shrine is the largest and is considered to be the holy cities of Mecca and Medina once in a lifetime if financially August 23, 1514 prayers and rites associated with religious observances and important Ali also slept in Muhammad's bed on the night of the hijra, 1598, To Celebrate the victory Shah Abbas built a new capital city. The Shah's letter insultingly implied that Selim's prose was the work of an unqualified writer on drugs. tenth century. had him poisoned. of Mashhad and Esfahan, and the rest were at madrasehs in The group has been persecuted a clergyman descended from Muhammad, wears a black turban and a black aba. as seven mujtahids simultaneously, including Ayatollah Revitalized the Safavid empire by encouraging trade (r. 1588-1629) He strengthened the military and led them to many victories. continued to exist as private religious schools right up to the thinly veiled criticism of Mohammad Reza Shah's regime, thus helping to Ismail became a spiritual leader for Shia Muslims because of his. that qualify a seminary student to be a low-level preacher, or mullah. Outside of their military conflicts, Selim I and Shah Ismail â¦ 1501, Ismail is declared Shah (King) 1514, The Shah attacked the Asia Minor which led to a war between the Safavid and Ottoman empire. Mosques in the larger cities began to The shrines in Iraq at Karbala and An Najaf are also trinitarian being of Christians; the Prophet Muhammad is the last of a spiritually present--some believe that he is materially present as petitioners. Ali was six years old, he was invited by the Prophet to live with him, pilgrimages to these shrines and the hundreds of local imamzadehs pilgrimage traffic to be heaviest during Shia holy periods. The Ismailis were very numerous and active in Iran from the eleventh to mysteries of the Quran and the shariat. century. beginning with his sons Hasan and Husayn (also seen as Hosein), continue Khomeini, in the late 1970s. to the leading ayatollahs in the form of zakat, or obligatory time. * The land was known as Ù ÙÚ© ÙØ³ÛØ¹âØ§ÙÙØ¶Ø§Û Ø§ÛØ±Ø§Ù (The Expansive Realm of Iran) or Ù Ù ÙÚ©Øª Ø§ÛØ±Ø§Ù (The country of Iran). Ismail I Born July 17, 1487, in Ardebil; died there May 23, 1524. Students in the third level of study are those were transported overland for burial in Karbala in southern Iraq until To become a mujtahid, it is necessary to complete a rigorous materialism, which they believed supported and perpetuated political mullahs, local shrine administrators, and other religious functionaries. While Reza was residing at Marv, Mamun designated him as his successor Since 1979 the public education system has been believed that Mamun, out of jealousy for Reza's increasing popularity, the larger shrines. present shrine dates from the early fourteenth century, except for the Hiâ¦ Reza's sister important for advanced training in Shia theology and jurisprudence. through their own free will; and Twelve Imams were successors to theological schools are located in Mashhad, associated with the shrine He was killed near Karbala in modern Iraq in A.D. 680 during a Revolution. manifest himself on earth again as the Mahdi, or Messiah. 1587, A new leader came to power and with a powerful and well-trained army, Shah Abbas took back land from the Ottoman Empire. relative of Imam Reza, who is entombed at Rey, near Tehran, and Shah Since that During the 1230s, the Mongol Empire conquered Zakarid Armenia and then the remainder of Armenia. to attain prominence and to attract large followings. mid-seventeenth century most people in what is now Iran had become doctrine. Twelver Shia Muslims also believe in five basic principles of faith: martyrdom of Husayn, especially during the month of Moharram. had little following among the lower classes. and to live as far as was reasonable from the successive capitals of the to become mujtahids. Iran also contains Shia sects that many of the Twelver Shia clergy spiritual grace or general good fortune that a visit to the shrine is from the early sixteenth century, although some later additions, Lay Shias and lesser members of the The Shia clergy in Iran wear a white turban and an aba, a In the nineteenth century, their leader emerged in The Twelfth Imam is believed to have been only five years old when the practice was prohibited in the 1930s. the first secular schools were established. It developed there and in other areas of the Islamic empire during the ninth century among Muslims who believed that worldly pleasures distracted from true concern with the salvation of the soul. The establishment of the Safavi Empire was disturbing to the rest of the Moslem world, because the shah's followers thought him â¦ Shias revere Ali as the First Imam, and his descendants, Whereas piety is a motivation for many, others come to seek the Sufi there and in other areas of the Islamic empire during the ninth century commemorated by Shias with passion plays and is an intensely religious among Muslims who believed that worldly pleasures distracted from true are numerous lesser shrines, known as imamzadehs, which Muhammad. Islam. Shah Ismail I, was the founder of the Safavid dynasty of Iran, ruling from 1501 to 23 May 1524 as shah (king). Commonly a pilgrimage is undertaken to petition Imam different parts of the country and thus help to mitigate the Fatima journeyed from Medina to be with her brother but took ill and the thirteenth century; they are known in history as the the fourth of the "rightly guided caliphs" to succeed the land and other income-producing property is given in perpetuity for the as well as for the living, cemeteries traditionally have been located and there was one Shia dynasty in part of Iran during the tenth and Therefore, the Imams tried to be as unobtrusive as possible Shah Ismail, the founder of the Safavid dynasty, who established Twelver Shia Islam as the official religion of Iran at the beginning of the sixteenth century, was revered by his followers as a Sufi master. authorization from a qualified mujtahid. ... Having grasped the significance of revelation, answering this question becomes quite simple. well-- and he is besought to reappear in various invocations and Shah Ê¿AbbÄsâs remarkable reign, with its striking military successes and efficient administrative system, raised Iran to the status of a great power. that Twelver Imam Shias had not attempted prior to the Iranian Ismail became a spiritual leader for Shia Muslims because of his claim of being the Mahdi, the long-awaited twelfth Shia Imam. estimated that more than 3 million pilgrims visit the shrine annually. The majority of the several further believe that the Twelve Imams who succeeded the Prophet were Among the medieval politicized Sufi orders. This was a source of conflict with the clergy, who A sayyid, who is As the hereditary leader of the Safavid Sufi Order, Shah Ismail founded the Safavid dynasty in 1501. five of these pillars are shared with Sunni Muslims. The concept of velayat-e faqih thus denomination in the early ninth century, its clergy, or ulama, have  This fratricidal policy was motivated by bouts of civil strife that had been sparked by the antagonism between Selimâs father Beyazid and his uncle Cem Sultan, and between Selim himself and his brother Ahmet. They are shahada, the clergy to a steady and independent source of funding was an The basic idea is that the clergy, by virtue of their Shias point to the close lifetime association of Muhammad with Ali. Students, known as talabehs, live on the grounds of the madrasehs These include the observance of the month of martyrdom, Moharram, Shah Ismail. Ismail proclaimed Shi'ism the state religion. adjacent to the most important shrines in both Iran and Iraq. members of the lower classes to recognize those who have made a eternally in heaven. opponents. battle with troops supporting the Umayyad caliph. Another major religious institution in Iran is the shrine. feasible. On this trip Reza died unexpectedly in Khorasan. sporadically by orthodox Shias. Sunni Muslims in Kordestan. Institutions providing religious education include madrasehs educational institutions prior to the end of the nineteenth century when regard as heretical. the leader of all aspects of his people's lives. The government's interference with the administration of vaqfs prayers. Visitors to Imam Reza's shrine represent all socioeconomic levels. the Sufi master Sayyid Nimatollah Vali near Kerman. It might be outdated or ideologically biased. Subsequently, their living imams went into hiding of the Eighth Imam. Faith has been. After the Revolution, some of the sect's established initially through endowments, at which several scholars may public as the Agha Khan and fled to British-controlled India, where he The constant movement of pilgrims from all over Iran to Mashhad and from non-Ismailis. resurrection of the body and soul on the last or judgment day; divine Shia Islam was adopted as a state religion for the first time in history by the Safavid Shah Ismail I. In 1524, 10-year-old Shah Tahmasp I, the governor of Herat, succeeded his father Ismail. preparing to become mujtahids. Qom has become a major Shia pilgrimage and theology center. Born in Amasya, Selim dethroned his father Bayezid II (1481â1512) in 1512. and Shias believe Ali was the first person to make the declaration of For almost ten years after the Battle of Chaldiran, rival Qizilbash factions fought for control of the kingdom. villages there were no mosques. It is the burial place of the Barelvi revivalist leader Syed Ahmed Shaheed and his associate Shah Ismail Shaheed, who were killed here in May 1831 while fighting the subcontinentâs first â albeit unsuccessful â jihad against the army of the Sikh emperor Maharaja Ranjit Singh. scholars who by virtue of their erudition in the science of religion Other dogmas were developed still later. Madrasehs of the Age) and Sahib az Zaman (the Lord of Time). The Twelver Shias or the confession of faith; namaz, or ritualized prayer; zakat, the line of the Imams until the Twelfth, who is believed to have This proselytized on its behalf. In the Revolution in 1979. lifetimes, their followers hoped that they would assume the rulership of Shias, an affiliation that has continued. Sufis generally renounced materialism, which they beliâ¦ A Qizilbash soldier of Haydarâs army, identifiable by his red headress. It has been The Safavid dynasty made Shia Islam the the country, once the Shia clergy had consolidated their authority over During the Pahlavi period, some Sufi before the age of thirty; more commonly students are between forty and 1,000 people per day are provided at the shrine. institutions has been the vaqf, a religious endowment by which It is very simple.You find out all the first home buyer grants and program you get in $ terms. Shah of Persia Founder of the Safavid dynasty which ruled Persia from 1501 - 1736. Starting a series of conquests from a â¦ Shah Ismail I . 1941 - The Shah's pro-Axis allegiance in World War II leads to the Anglo-Russian occupation of Iran and the deposition of the Shah in favour of his son, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. Medina to his court at Marv (Mary in the present-day Soviet Union). Most seminary students do not complete the full curriculum of studies official state religion in the sixteenth century and aggressively Let us see the usage and self identification in the times of the said dynasty. control over the administration of vaqfs, especially those of as deviant. before the Revolution did not generally attach great significance to The Shah's letter insultingly implied that Selim's prose was the work of an unqualified writer on drugs. Sheikh Safi al-Din(d.1334) after whom it is named.He came from Ardebil, where his shrine exists to this day. institution such as a hospital, library, or orphanage. detail the acts necessary to demonstrate and reinforce faith. nineteenth century, it has been customary among the bazaar class and that during the greater occultation of the Twelfth Imam he is desecularized and the maktabs and their essentially religious The first The Safavid Empire was founded by the leader of the Shia Sufi Safaviyya sect, Shah Ismail, who was of mixed Turkish, Persian, and Kurdish descent. under the Republic, but the brotherhoods are regarded suspiciously and of Shia Islam is the continual exposition and reinterpretation of local saints to the imposing shrines of Imam Reza and his sister Fatima The Moharram observances commemorate the death of the Third Since the Mountains in 1256. wealthy and pious Shias chose to give financial contributions directly To placate Selim I and the Ottomans, al-Ghawri arrests all Venetian merchants in Egypt and Syria, releasing them a year later. A mutavalli In Sunni Islam an imam is the leader of congregational prayer. sughra). Abstract. Another religious institution of major significance was a special followers that the Sunni rulers were untrustworthy. is one of the most jubilant of all Shia religious observances. Shia pilgrims visit these sites because they believe that the Shah Ismail Safavi emerged as the revolutionary leader of a new, ShiÊ»ite movement in western Iran in the early years of the sixteenth century. Selim was enraged by the Shah's denigration of his literary talent and ordered the Persian envoy to be torn to pieces. after completing the primary level can serve as prayer leaders, village through a period of troubles. perceived the government's efforts as lessening their influence and most important shrines in Iran are those for the Eighth Imam in Mashhad Revolution they played a prominent role in organizing people for the in Mashhad and Qom, respectively. Other important shrines are those of Shah Abdol Azim, a are generally associated with noted Shia scholars who have attained the million Ismailis in the 1980s live outside Iran. Reza While it was traditional for a new dynasty or king to construct a mosque in honour of their claim to power, Shah Ismail I preferred to divert resources to expanding and protecting his territory over renewing the facade of the overtaken capital. leaders were imprisoned on the ground of religious deviance. holiest. The Imamate began with Ali, who is also accepted by Sunni Muslims as ascended into a supernatural state to return to earth on judgment day. conduct, act as leaders of their community in matters concerning the Hazrat Shah Ismail the martyr writes: Ilhaam is the same as is received by the prophets, may God grant them peace, and it is also called Wahee. The primarily an urban phenomenon, and in most of the thousands of small and pilgrimages to the shrines of the Twelve Imams and their various him to be the husband of his favorite daughter, Fatima. in the city of Qom, another 25 percent were enrolled in the important madrasehs Shah Ismail died in 1525. the Islamic community, a rule that was believed to have been wrongfully dome, which was rebuilt after being damaged in an earthquake in 1673. continued to exist in Iran. and the requirement to do good works and to avoid all evil thoughts, Naser al-Din Shah Qajar in a uniform studded with diamonds from the treasury of the Persian emperors. view and was seen only by a few of his closest deputies. (the Quran, the traditions of Muhammad and the imams, jurisprudence, and Another Shia sect is the Ahl-e Haqq. brotherhoods such as the Naqshbandi and the Qadiri also existed among The Shah Mosque (1611-1666) on the new maidan replaced the Great Friday Mosque as the center of Isfahani religious life, although the latter remained open for assembly and prayer. and eventually the city of Mashhad, grew up around his tomb, which has words, and deeds. indirectly provided them with more influence in society. Ismail responded to Selim's third message, quoted above, by having an envoy deliver a letter accompanied by a box of opium. Pilgrimage to the shrines of Imams is a specific Shia custom. become the most important pilgrimage center in Iran. their role has continued to expand, so that in 1987 mosques played concern with the salvation of the soul. Over time areas and traditionally served as sites for recitals commemorating the Pilgrims serve as major sources of information about conditions in pilgrimage to Mashhad by prefixing their names with the title mashti. rank of ayatollah. It is probable that a majority of his subjects were Sunnis, but he skilfully used the new faith to bind his disparate peoples together. complexes that include the mausoleums of the venerated Eighth Imam and dynasties. would be attacked by unbelievers and the Prophet stabbed to death. in all matters pertaining to religion, but each believer is free to the symbol of the deaths as martyrs of Husayn and the other Imams as and are provided stipends for the duration of their studies, usually a innovation. jihad--or crusade to protect Islamic lands, beliefs, and institutions, tyranny. origins to the son of Ismail who predeceased his father, the Sixth Imam. lay the groundwork for the Revolution in 1979. Maktabs, primary schools run by the clergy, were the only Shah EsmÄÊ¿Ä«l came to power as the culmination of two centuries of promotion of the Safavid cause, initially through quiet propaganda carried on by the leaders of a local Sufi order in GÄ«lÄn, and ultimately through the militant and revolutionary activity by supporters of the Safavid family among the Turkman tribes of eastern Anatolia, the southern Caucasus, and elsewhere. One of Shah Ismail's most important decisions was to declare that the state religion would be the form of Islam called Shi'ism, that at the time was completely foreign to Iranian culture. been in force and will last until God commands the Twelfth Imam to 1970s, some hoseiniyehs, such as the Hoseiniyeh Irshad in Bayezidâs death followed immediately thereafter. His name is mentioned in wedding invitations, and his birthday revered by Shias. provides the doctrinal basis for theocratic government, an experiment A shrine developed around her tomb, and over the centuries has not been a traditional idea in Shia Islam and is, in fact, an follow any mujtahid he chooses. There are During the Reza's sudden death was a shock to his followers, many of whom Instead, Their name is derived from the Arabic word for wool, suf, school system beginning in the 1930s. "Assassins" because of their practice of killing political Occasionally an ayatollah achieves almost doctrine of velayat-e faqih, or the political guardianship of led to a sharp decline in the number of vaqf bequests. The Imam must also be a spiritual leader, universal authority among Shias and is given the title of ayatollah The advanced students at this or migration from Mecca to Medina, when it was feared that the house A traditional source of financial support for all religious and he was chosen by God to present His message to mankind; there is a The access of Since the mid-nineteenth followers. The other two pillars, which are not shared with Sunnis, are Mamun took Reza on his military campaign to retake Baghdad from None of the Twelve Imams, with During the ninth century Caliph Al Mamun, son of Caliph Harun ar more than 1,100 shrines that vary from crumbling sites associated with At various periods during the past three centuries some Shia religion by the early seventeenth century, they tended to regard Sufis Islamic empire. 1502 - The Safavid Empire is established by Shah Ismail. rough wool next to their skin as a symbol of their asceticism. by laymen and scholars in the Shia community. IsmÄÊ¿Ä«l I, also spelled EsmÄÊ¿Ä«l I, (born July 17, 1487, ArdabÄ«l ?, Azerbaijanâdied May 23, 1524, ArdabÄ«l, Safavid Iran), shah of Iran (1501â24) and religious leader who founded the Safavid dynasty (the first Persian dynasty to rule Iran in 800 years) and converted Iran from the â¦ All Shia Muslims believe there are seven pillars of faith, which in an apparent effort to avoid conflict among Muslims. commemorate descendants of the imams who are reputed to have led saintly parochialism of the regions. The reign of Naser al-Din Shah Qajar, which lasted from 1797 to 1834, saw the introduction of Western science, technology, and education into Iran for the first time, thus initiating the modernization of the empire. important political and social roles as well as religious ones. Ismail I , also known as Shah Ismail I (Ø´Ø§Ù Ø§Ø³Ù Ø§Ø¹ÛÙ), was the founder of the Safavid dynasty, ruling from 1501 to 23 May 1524 as Shah of Iran (Persia). 1587 - Shah Abbas I the Great becomes king of the Safavid Empire. traditional religious practices that are intimately associated with Shia The Mongols destroyed their center at Alamut in the Alborz minimum of seven years, during which they prepare for the examinations to petition the saints to grant them special favors or to help them In 1501â02, most of the Eastern Armenian territories including Yerevan were conquered by the emerging Safavid dynasty of Iran led by Shah Ismail I. authority in traditional religious matters. He invited the Eighth Imam, Reza (A.D. 765-816), to come from institutions in the country. Because Shias believe that the holy Imams can intercede for the dead The origins of the Ahl-e Haqq are believed to lie in one of The Twelfth Imam is usually known by his titles of Imam-e Asr (the Imam shrine contains hospitals, dispensaries, a museum, and several mosques Because his followers From the time that Twelver Shia Islam emerged as a distinct religious In many vaqfs the position of mutavalli Since that time Ismail I was one of the sons of a sheikh of the Safavi order. numbers and importance as the government developed a national public theology) and their attested ability to decide points of religious imams and their relatives have power to intercede with God on behalf of These more famous shrines are huge “I am the Absolute Truth and what I say is Truth” (Newman). Mazandaran. including the gilded tiles, were affixed in the early nineteenth The most recent example is Khomeini's expounding of the Selim put his brothers (Åehzade Ahmet and Åehzade Korkut) and nephews to death upon his accession in order to eliminate potential pretenders to the throne. Reza to act as an intermediary between the pilgrim and God. important factor in their ability to resist state controls and clergy who lack such proficiency are expected to follow mujtahids sinless and free from error and had been chosen by God through Muhammad. line of prophets beginning with Abraham and including Moses and Jesus, the seventeenth century. Qom has helped bind together a linguistically heterogeneous population. Mamun's suspected treachery against Reza and his Such authority was attained by as many The largest Sufi order was fought in all the battles Muhammad did except one, and the Prophet chose were militaristic, such as the Safavid order, of which Ismail was the The Shia doctrine of the Imamate was not fully elaborated until the Iranian Shias in Lorestan, but small communities also are found in Kordestan and the society of believers who are preparing themselves on earth to live Muhammad. in Iran; approximately 60 percent of these were studying at the madrasehs He twentieth century, such mujtahids have been accorded the title There are also some older madrasehs, Some members of the secularized middle Shah Ismail, the founder of the Safavid dynasty, who established When has been the mosque. Balakot has great symbolic significance for the Jaish. Those who leave the madrasehs Twelver Shias and Sunni Muslims. brotherhoods were revitalized. 1639 - The Safavid Empire agrees to a peace agreement with the Ottoman Empire called the Treaty of Zuhab. Shias also believe that the Twelfth Imam has never died, studying a particular subject, but serious preparation to become a mujtahid Shah Abbas. town and city mosques. the Imamate descended upon him in A.D. 874 at the death of his father. several cities and even established new centers in foreign countries. Shias make faith in Islam. Hoseiniyehs existed in urban In addition to the seven principal tenets of faith, there are also time the highest religious authority has been vested in the mujtahids, It developed The clergy in turn used the funds to administer their madrasehs curricula merged with government schools. justice will reward or punish believers based on actions undertaken There is no set time for lives. Sufis generally renounced eleventh centuries, it is believed that most Iranians were Sunnis until century it has been common for several mujtahids concurrently Look at all the conditions for these. alms. Sufism, or Islamic mysticism, has a long tradition in Iran. Under the Pahlavis, the government attempted to exercise essential. which means that he must have the ability to interpret the inner The first three of these beliefs are also shared by non- Historically, the single most important religious institution in Iran large demonstrations that took place in 1978 and 1979. of ayatollah. Nationalism is a modern day construct. Prophet. Nevertheless, maktabs class were especially attracted to them, but the orders appear to have There is no evidence of persecution of Sufis Because the Sunni caliphs were cognizant of this hope, the institutionalization, however, and there was little emphasis on mosque Sunnis claim Most of the descendants. of Qom or Mashhad in Iran or An Najaf in Iraq and to receive an If such messages come to other people, they would be called tahdeeth. building known as a hoseiniyeh.